Martyr Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr

 

Born      : On :  March 1 1935                       At : Kazmayn Iraq

Died       : On :  8  April 1980                        At : Najaf Iraq

Age         :47

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad_Baqir_al-Sadr

 

Biography

His father died in 1937, leaving the family penniless. In 1945 the family moved to the holy city of Najaf, where al-Sadr would spend the rest of his life. He was a child prodigy who, at ten, was delivering lectures on Islamic history, and at eleven, he studied logic and wrote a book to refute philosophy.[1] Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr completed his religious teachings at religious seminaries under al-Khoei and Muhsin al-Hakim at the age of 25 and began teaching.

While teaching he became a prominent member of the Iraqi Shia community, and was noted for his many writings. His first works were detailed critiques of Marxism that presented early ideas of an alternative Islamic form of government. Perhaps his most important work was Iqtisaduna, one of the most important works on Islamic economics. This work was a critique of both socialism and capitalism. He was subsequently commissioned by the government of Kuwait to assess how that country's oil wealth could be managed in keeping with Islamic principles. This led to a major work on Islamic banking that still forms the basis for modern Islamic banks. 16. Al-Bank al-la Ribawi fi al-Islam (Usury-free Banking in Islam).

He also worked with Sayyid Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim in forming an Islamist movement in Iraq. This attracted the attention of the Baath Party, which resulted in numerous imprisonments for the Ayatollah. He was often subjugated to torture during his imprisonments, but continued his work after being released. One of the founders of modern Islamist thought he is credited with first developing the notion, later put in operation in Iran, of having western style democratic elections, but with a body of Muslim scholars to ensure all laws corresponded with Islamic teachings.

In 1977, he was sentenced to life in prison following uprisings in Najaf, but was released two years later due to his immense popularity. Upon his release however, he was put under house arrest. In 1980, after writing in the defense of the Islamic Revolution, Sadr was once again imprisoned, tortured, and executed by the regime of Saddam Hussein. His sister, Amina Sadr bint al-Huda, was also imprisoned, tortured, and executed. It has been alleged that Sadr was killed by having an iron nail hammered into his head[2] and then being set on fire.

During the execution of Saddam Hussein, chants of "Long live Mohammed Baqir Sadr!" were heard being chanted by some of the Shi'a guards. CNN article

Political Philosophy: Wilayat Al-Umma

Mohammad Baqir Al-Sadr's political philosophy, known as Wilayat Al-Umma (Governance of the people), set out his view of a modern day Islamic state. Using his mastery of the Quran and his innovative subject-based approach to Quranic exegesis, Al-Sadr extracted two concepts from the Holy text in relation to governance: khilafat al-insan (Man as heir or trustee of God) and shahadat al-anbiya (Prophets as witnesses). Al-Sadr explained that throughout history there have been 'two lines. Mans line and the Prophets line. The former is the khalifa (trustee) who inherits the earth from God; the latter is the shahid (witness).'[3].

Al-Sadr demonstrated that khilafa (governance) is a right given to the whole of humanity and explained it to be an obligation given from God to the human race to tend the globe and administer human affairs. This was a major advancement of Islamic political theory. Al-Sadr stated that the legitimacy of a government in an Islamic state comes from the people, and not from the clerics. Al-Sadr explained that throughout history there have been 'two lines. Mans line and the Prophets line. The former is the khalifa (trustee) who inherits the earth from God; the latter is the shahid (witness)'[3].

While Al-Sadr identified khilafa as the obligation and right of the people, he used a broad-based exegesis of a Quranic verse[4] to identify who held the responsibility of shahada in an Islamic state: First, the Prophets (anbiya); second, the Imams, who are considered a divine (rabbani) continuation of the Prophets in this line; and lastly the marjaiyya (see Marja)[5].

While the two functions of khilafa (governance) and shahada (martyrism; supervision) were united during the times of the Prophets, the two diverged during the occultation so that khilafa returned to the people (umma) and shahada to the scholars[6].

Al-Sadr also presented a practical application of khilafa, in the absence of the twelfth Imam. He argued the practical application of the khilafa (governance) required the establishment of a democratic system whereby the people regularly elect their representatives in government:

'Islamic theory rejects monarchy as well as the various forms of dictatorial government; it also rejects the aristocratic regimes and proposes a form of government, which contains all the positive aspects of the democratic system.' [7]

He continued to champion this point until his final days:

'Lastly, I demand, in the name of all of you and in the name of the values you uphold, to allow the people the opportunity truly to exercise their right in running the affairs of the country by holding elections in which a council representing the ummah (people) could truly emerge.' [8]

Al-Sadr was executed by Saddam Hussein in 1980 before he was able to provide any details of the mechanism for the practical application of the shahada (martyrism) concept in an Islamic state. A few elaborations of shahada can be found in Al-Sadrs works.

In his text Role of the Shiah Imams in the reconstruction of Islamic society, Al-Sadr illustrates the scope and limitations of shahada by using the example of the third Shii Imam, Hussein ibn Ali (the grandson of the Prophet), who stood up to Yazid, the ruler at the time. Al-Sadr explains Yazid was not simply going against Islamic teachings, as many rulers before and after him had done, but he was distorting the teachings and traditions of Islam and presenting his deviated ideas as Islam itself. This, therefore, is what led Imam Hussein to intervene to challenge Yazid in order to restore the true teachings of Islam, and as a consequence laid down his own life. In Al-Sadrs own words, the shahids (witness person performing shahada or supervision) duties are to protect the correct doctrines and to see that deviations do not grow to the extent of threatening the ideology itself'.

List of works[9]

Jurisprudence

  • 1. Buhuth fi Sharh al- 'Urvah al' Wuthqa (Discourses on the Commentary of al- 'Urvah al-Wuthqa), 4 volumes.
  • 2. Al-Ta'liqah 'ala Minhaj al-Salihin (Annotation of Ayatullah Hakim's Minhaj al-Salihin), 2 volumes.
  • 3. Al-Fatawa al-Wazihah (Clear Decrees).
  • 4. Mujaz Ahkam al-Hajj (Summarized Rules of Hajj)
  • 5. Al-Ta'liqah 'ala Manasik al-Hajj (Annotation of Ayatullah Khui's Hajj Rites).
  • 6. Al-Ta'liqah 'ala Salah al-Jumu'ah (Annotation on Friday Prayer)

Fundamentals of the law

  • 7. Durus fi Ilm al-Usul (Lessons in the Science of Jurisprudence), 3 Parts.
  • 8. Al-Ma'alim al-Jadidah lil-Usul (The New Signposts of Jurisprudence).
  • 9. Ghayah al-Fikr (The Highest Degree of Thought)

Philosophy

 Logic

 Theology

  • 12. Al-Mujaz fi Usul al-Din: al-Mursil, al-Rasul, al-Risalah (The Summarized Principles of Religion: The Sender, The Messenger, The Message).
  • 13. Al-Tashayyu' wa al-Islam - Bahth Hawl al-Wilayah (Discourse on Divine Authority).
  • 14. Bahth Hawl al-Mahdi (Discourse on Imam Mahdi)

Economics

 Qur'anic commentaries

  • 18. Al-Tafair al-Mawzu'i lil-Qur'an al-Karim - al-Madrasah al-Qur'aniyyah (The Thematic exegesis of the Holy Qur'an).
  • 19. Buhuth fi 'Ulum al-Qur'an (Discourses on Qur'anic Sciences).
  • 20. Maqalat Qur'aniyyah (Essays on Qur'an).

 History

  • 21. Ahl al-Bayt Tanawwu' Ahdaf wa Wahdah Hadaf (Ahl al- Bayt, Variety of Objectives Towards a Single Goal).
  • 22. Fadak fi al-Tarikh (Fadak in History).

 Islamic Culture

  • 23. Al-Islam Yaqud al-Hayah (Islam Directive to Life).
  • 24. Al-Madrasah al-Islamiyyah (Islamic School)
  • 1. Al-Insan al-Mu'asir wa al-Mushkilah al-Ijtima'iyyah (Modern Man and Social Problems)
  • 2. Maza Tu'raf 'an al-Iqtisad al-Islami? (What could be Known of Islamic Economy?)
  • 25. Risalatuna (Our Mission).
  • 26. Nazrah Ammah fi al-Ibadat (General View on Rites of Worship).
  • 27. Maqalat wa Muhazrat (Essays and Lectures)

Books

References

  1. ^ Baqir Al-Sadr, Our Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, 1987, p. xiii
  2. ^ Anthony Shadid, Night Draws Near: Iraq's People in the Shadow of America's War, (Holt, 2005), p.164
  3. ^ a b Mohammed Baqir Al-Sadr, Al-Islam yaqud al-hayat, Qum, 1979, p.132
  4. ^ Quran 5:44
  5. ^ Baqir Al-Sadr, Al-Islam yaqud al-hayat, Qum, 1979, p.24
  6. ^ Faleh A Jabar, The Shiite Movement in Iraq, London: Saqi Books, 2003, p.286
  7. ^ Mohammed Baqir Al-Sadr, Lamha fiqhiya, p.20
  8. ^ Mohammed Baqir Al-Sadr, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, London: ICAS, 2003, p.15
  9. ^ The Super Genius Personality of Islam
  • Mallat, Chibli. "Muhammad Baqir as-Sadr." Pioneers of Islamic Revival. ed. Ali Rahnema. London: Zed Books, 1994
  • Arabic Biography

 


 

 


 

The Role of Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr in Shi'a Political  Activism in Iraq From 1958 to 1980

 


http://islamicinsights.com/religion/history/sayyid-muhammad-baqir-al-sadr.html

Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr

"It has become clear although with great sorrow that the deceased Ayatollah, the Martyr Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and his honorable, oppressed sister who was among the teachers of knowledge and ethics and among the most prideful in knowledge and literature have attained the elevated status of martyrdom at the hands of the Iraqi regime. And this was carried out in a terribly horrid way.

"But it is not a surprise that such great ones should be martyred those who have spent their lives struggling in the way of Islamic goals and at the hands of murderers who have wasted their lives in oppression and blood-sucking."

                        From an announcement attributed to Imam Khomeini

His name was Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr. His ancestry could be traced back to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) through the Seventh Imam, Imam Musa al-Kadhim (peace be upon him). He was born on the 25th of Thil Hijjah, 1353 AH (March 1, 1935 CE) in the city of Kadhmiyya, Iraq.

Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr learned reading and writing at the Muntada al-Nashr elementary school in the city of Kadhmiyya. Even at a young age, his teachers and peers were amazed at his brilliance and ability to grasp advanced material. His ability was such that he studied most of the Sutooh-level books without a teacher.

When Sayyid al-Sadr turned 12, he started studying the book Ma'aalim al-Usool under his brother Sayyid Ismail al-Sadr. It is said that when Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr would object to some aspects of the book, his brother would say, "These are the same objections that the author of Kifaayat al-Usool (which is among the highest, if not the highest, level books in seminary studies) had against the author of Ma'aalim." Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr then traveled to the holy city of Najaf to complete his Islamic studies.

While the entire duration of his studies, from beginning to end, did not exceed about 18 years, this period was lengthy in its quality. The Sayyid was always concerned with his studies, committing all his time to seeking knowledge. Some of Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr's teachers were Ayatollah Sayyid Abul Qasim al-Khoei, Ayatollah Sayyid Muhsin Tabatabai al-Hakim, and others.

Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr began giving lessons by the young age of 25, teaching the first round of Ilm al-Usool in Jamadi al-Thani, 1378 AH, and ending it in Rabee al-Awwal, 1391 AH. He started teaching Bahth al-Khaarij (external research in Islamic jurisprudence) in 1381 AH. A few of his students were the Martyr Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim, the Martyr Sayyid Muhammad al-Sadr, and Sayyid Kamal al-Haidari.

Sayyid Baqir al-Sadr believed in the importance and necessity of establishing a mature Islamic government which would govern by the Divine message of Islam and reflect all the enlightening aspects of Islam. He believed that the leadership in Islamic work must be an aware Marjaiyyat one which is fully aware of the circumstances, hopes and goals of the Muslim community. He was also concerned about the situation of the Islamic seminary, emphasizing the need to attract the youth to strengthen the seminary.

The Sayyid worked to change the curriculum in the Islamic Seminary to better suit the needs of society, because the old curriculums were not producing enough scholars in the appropriate time frame. To help solve this problem, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr wrote the revolutionary three Halaqaat (lessons in Ilm al-Usool).

Sayyid Kathem al-Husaini al-Haa'iri has described Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr as, "the pride of his timethe genius of this age, the miracle of this centurya principled jurist, a Muslim philosopherhe was a Marja' among the Maraja' of the Muslims in Najafhe started the Islamic revolution in Iraq and led it until he was martyred."

In addition to his works on jurisprudence, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr penned many other books, including Falsafatuna and Iqtisaduna, ground-breaking works on Islamic philosophy and economics.

As the Ba'athists went about attacking the religious and cultural fabric of Iraq, the scholars of Najaf responded. At the forefront were Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and his sister Bintul Huda. Along with several notable scholars, including Martyr Sayyid Baqir al-Hakim and Allama Murtadha Askari, Baqir al-Sadr founded Hizbul Dawatul Islamiya, or the Islamic Call Party, in order to promote Islamic values and combat the socialist and secularist influences of the government. The party actively campaigned against the Ba'athists' reign of terror that shortly overtook the entire Iraqi nation. Meanwhile, his sister Amina Bintul Huda, a Mujtahida herself, conducted a literary and academic struggle against the Ba'athists. She established schools for women, and she wrote numerous books and articles aimed at the women of Iraq in order to promote Islamic values.

After ten months of house-arrest, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and Bintul Huda were arrested on the 19th of Jamaadi al-Awwal, 1400 AH (April 1980).

On the night of April 9, 1980, the Ba'athist regime cut off the electricity from the holy city of Najaf and sent a security force to the home of their cousin Sayyid Muhammad al-Sadr. Sayyid Muhammad al-Sadr went with security force back to their headquarters, where they showed him the bodies of Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and Bintul Huda. Bathed in blood, the signs of torture were all over their bodies. Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and Bintul Huda were buried in the Wadi as-Salam graveyard in the holy city of Najaf that same night.

Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and Bintul Huda saw oppression and injustice around them, and they spoke up against it. In that sense, they were true followers of Imam Hussain and Lady Zainab (peace be upon them). Indeed, when Saddam was asked to spare Bintul Huda's life, he instantly remarked, "Kill the brother and spare the sister? You want me to make the same mistake as Yazid?!"

And yet, Saddam failed to learn from the mistakes of his predecessor. By assassinating Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and Bintul Huda, he actually helped give fresh blood to the Islamic revolutionary movements in Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, and around the Muslim world. In their martyrdom, the two have become icons of the Shia revolutionary spirit. Leaked video footage of Saddam's execution shows witnesses shouting "Long Live Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr!" And plastered on walls and billboards all over Iraq today, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr's ubiquitous image continues to echo the words of Iqbal: "The murder of Hussain is actually the death of Yazid. After each Karbala, Islam is reborn."


http://ar.electionsmeter.com/%D9%81%D9%8A_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%84/Mohammad-Baqir-al-Sadr-id1272

ENG - Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muḥammad Bāqir al-Ṣadr (Arabic: ) (March 1, 1935 April 9, 1980) was an Iraqi Twelver Shi'a cleric, a philosopher, and ideological founder of Islamic Dawa Party born in al-Kazimiya, Iraq. He is the father-in-law of Muqtada al-Sadr and cousin of both Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr and Imam Musa as-Sadr. His father Haydar al-Sadr was a well respected high ranking shi'a cleric. His lineage goes back to Muhammad, through the seventh Shia Imam, Musa al-Kazim. (See Sadr family for more details.)
 
Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr completed his religious teachings at religious seminaries under al-Khoei and Muhsin al-Hakim at the age of 25 and began teaching. - Barzani Massoud ? -
While teaching he became a prominent member of the Iraqi Shia community, and was noted for his many writings. His first works were detailed critiques of Marxism that presented early ideas of an alternative Islamic form of government.
 
He also worked with Sayyid Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim in forming an Islamist movement in Iraq. This attracted the attention of the Baath Party, which resulted in numerous imprisonments for the Ayatollah. He was often subjugated to torture during his imprisonments, but continued his work after being released. One of the founders of modern Islamist thought he is credited with first developing the notion, later put in operation in Iran, of having western style democratic elections, but with a body of Muslim scholars to ensure all laws corresponded with Islamic teachings. Publicly he was a supporter of Ayatollah Khomeni.
 
In 1977, he was sentenced to life in prison following uprisings in Najaf, but was released two years later due to his immense popularity. Upon his release however, he was put under house arrest. - Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr Massoud Barzani ? - In 1980, after writing in the defense of Khomeni and the Islamic Revolution, Sadr was once again imprisoned, tortured, and executed by the regime of Saddam Hussein. His sister, Amina Sadr bint al-Huda, was also imprisoned, tortured, and executed. It has been alleged that Sadr was killed by having an iron nail hammered into his head and then being set on fire.
During the execution of Saddam Hussein, chants of "Long live Mohammed Baqir Sadr!" were heard being chanted by some of the Shi'a guards.

 

 
Cover PDF
THE CONTRIBUTION OF MUHAMMAD BÄQIR AL-SADR TO CONTEMPORARY ISLAMIC ECONOMIC THOUGHT
WILSON Journal of Islamic Studies.1998; 9: 46-59

 

 

Martyr al-Sadr(may His mercy be upon him) (... Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr who was a Muslim intellectual and it was hoped that Islam could profit more from him. And I hope this great man's books are studied by Muslims...) Imam Khumayni (may He be pleased with him), Sahifa-ye Nur, vol.14, p.177 (... his honored sister was a teacher of thought, ethics and pride of science and literature...) Imam Khumayni (may He be pleased with him), Sahifa-ye Nur, vol.12, p.56) A Brief Account of the Martyr Sayyid's Biography The martyr Sayyid's father is Sayyid Haydar al-Sadr who was born in Samarra' Iraq in 1309 A.H. He was a grand marja' (supreme religious authority) of his time. His livelihood was to an extent of humbleness that his family passed the night of his demise without super. He died in the city of Kazimayn, Iraq in 1359 A.H leaving three children: Sayyid Isma'il, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir and Sayyidah Aminah (Known as Bint al-Huda). The martyr Sayyid al-Sadr's mother was the Ayatullah Shaykh Muhammad Hassan Al Yassin's honored grand daughter; and the Ayatullah Shaykh' abd-ul Hussayn Al Yassin's daughter; and the sister of the grand Ayatullah Muhammad Rida Al Yassin, Ayatullah Murtada Al Yassin and Radi Al Yassin's.

The martyr Sayyid was born in the city of Kazimayn, Iraq on Dhil Qu'dah, 25, 1353 A.H/2.3.1933 CE. In early days of his childhood, he was deprived of fatherhood and brought up by his elder brother and bonored mother. He completed all hawzah (religious seminary) stages at the age of 25 in 1378 A.H/1958 CE. A year after that, he himself started teaching al-Bahth al-kharij (the top academic stage) at hawzah. His excellency got married with his paternal cousin (the Imam Musa al-Sadr and Ayatullah Sayyid Rida al-Sadr's sister and the grand Ayatullah Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-Sadr's daughter).

Five children was the Fruit of the blessed marriage. They were: A son called sayyid Jafar and four girls that three of them got married with three sons of the martyr marja Sayyid Muhammad al-Sadr. Recently, two of their husbands (Sayyid Mustapha and Sayyid Muammal) were martyred along with their eminent father.

His most important activities:

1. Teaching al-Bahth al-Kharij (a top academic degree at hawzah) for more than twenty years.

2. Offering intellectual support to Jama't al-Ulama in Najaf at al-Adwa' magazine and other periodicals.

3. Offering intellectual support to Usul al-Din and Fiqh colleges.

4. Innovating a new institxution for marja' iyyat in the Shi'ah world called al-Marja'iyyah al-Mawdu'iyyah (subjective majaiyyah).

5. Esteemed works in Economy, logic, usul, fiqh, principles of beliefs, etc.

6. Esteemed Political-intellectual stances in defense of the Islamic Republic of Iran. It suffices here to mention some of his brave-daring positions in defense of Imam Khumayni (may He be satisfied with him) as well as the Islamic Revolution when the Iraqi Ba'th party cast its fearful shadow over Najaf to an extent that people could hardly breathe: 1. Urging some of his students to attend the late Imam's lessons. 2. Paying visits to the Imam at his house. 3. Sending a detailed letter to the late Imam in Paris in 1357 A.H/1978. 4. Delivering lectures, extending congratulations and closing classroom on the occasion of the Islamic Revolution's Victory, while no other marja could have taken such a due measure in Najaf. 5. Calling for his supporters to hold demonstration in support of the Islamic Revolution and carrying the late Imam's pictures. 6. Writing a letter to his students who had migrated to Iran to Fully support the late Imam and be at the service of the Islamic Revolution. 7. Writing a letter to the Iranian Arabs of Khuzistan asking them to follow Imam's leadership, as some mysterious hands sought to sow discord between the Arabs and the Islamic government. 8. At the outset of the Islamic Revolution's victory, he discerned the existence of deviated groups as a danger for the Revolution. Therefore, he started to write a series of "Islam leads the life" in order to stablize the Revolution's idealogic foundations. Six issues were published, but unfortunately, his martyrdom did not let the series to be continued. 9. His correspondence with the late Imam, when the Imam returned to Iran. 10. Holding a ceremony in commemoration of martyr Ayatullah Mutahhari.

His Arrest: 1. Recent days of Rajab 1392 A.H./ 1972 CE 2. In Safar 1397 A.H./1977 CE following the Safar rise of Iraqi people. 3. On Rajab, 17, 1399 A.H which Followed by Rajab rise of Iraqi People. 4. Eventually, after several abortive attempts, the martyr Sayyid was arrested on Saturday afternoon at 14:30 Jumada al-Ula 1400 A.H/April, 5,1980 CE. On April, 8, 1980 at about 22:00 Najaf's power was cut. At midnight, the Iraqi forces summoned the grand Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr, the martyr sayyid's paternal cousin (the martyr marja Sayyid Munammd, and delivered the bloody and tortured bodies of the martyr and his sister. At the very midnight, they were buried at Wadi al-Salam of Najaf. His scholar and oppressed sister was his most powerful companion in this course.

An Introduction to His Scholarly Writings. Martyr Sayyid al-Sadr (may He be pleased with him), like every other scholar, had profounded thoughts and had no time to apply them; of course, regarding the martyr Sayyid its a double pity, for he was martyred at the age of 47. Above all, some of his works were robbed by Ba'thist executioners, namely, a book about analysing human thought related to philosophy of cognition and some other esteemed writings. His Most Scholarly characteristics 1. Comprehensiveness 2. Perfect comprehension in percieving discussed subjects. 3. Innovation 4. Reguliarity 5. Logical and conscientious tendency.

His Most Important Writings

1. Iqtisaduna (our economy), 2 vols.

2. Falsafatuna (our philosophy) which includes philosophy of knowledge and existence.

3. The Logical Basis of Induction, which includes a modern perspective on philosophy of knowledge as well as a new answer to the philosophical problem of induction.

4. Discourses in Jurisprudence, four vols. which includes three complete series of ilm al-usul in three scholarly levels.

5. Discourses on Explanation of al-Irwat al-Wuthqa, four vols. which includes argumentative-jurisprudential discourses. (may he rest in peace)

A part of the late Imam's message on the occasion of the martyrdom of the grand Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammd Baqir al-Sadr and his revered sister In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful. "Surely we are Allah's and to Him we shall surely return" the Quran (2:156) With much regret, according to his exellency Mr.Minister of Foreign Affairs who received that from several sources and Muslim states authorities and according to other sources, the late matyr Ayatullah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr along with his revered-oppressed sister who were of teachers of thought, ethics and eminents of knowledge and literature achieved high degree of martyrdom by the Iraq, debased Ba'thist regime in a heart-rending way. Martyrdom is an inheritance which is inherited by the authorized to these dear personalities. And crime and oppression are also inheritance which is inherited by their oppressive predecessors to these criminals of history. These eminents who have spent their lives for the cause of Islam and achieve martyrdom by criminals who have spent their lives in blood-sucking and oppression is not a surprise. It is surpise that mujahidin die in the way of the Truth, while the criminal-oppressive do not welter them in blood. In commemoration of this scholarly and mujahid figure who was of eminents of hawzah, religious an authorities and Muslim intellectuals, I announce three days (from Wednesday, Urdibehesht, 3) as mourning and Thursday, Urdibehesht, 4 as a public holiday. May God compensate for this big loss and grant greatness to Islam and Muslims. And peace be upon the Allah's right servants. Ruhullah al-Musavi al-Khumayni 2.2.1359 S.H/ Sahifa-ye Nur