SHEIKH   SUDOOQ

 
Name  Abu Jafar Mohammed ibne Ali ibne Moosa ibne Babawiya al Qummi al Khorasani ar Raazi popularly known as Sheikh Sudooq.
 He was born at the end of 305 H  & He died in 381 A.H. (990 A.D.) Ray-Tehran near Shah Abdul Azeem 

 

Sheik Sudooq hailed from Qum. In his twilight years he moved to a village near. Tehran. His Kunyat is Abu Jafar and is remembered with the title of Sudooq that means a very truthful person. There are two very interesting reasons for the title which we shall discuss bye and bye. There is no positive evidence as to his year of birth. According to some indications, scholars have guessed that Sheikh Sudooq was born at the end of 305 H or in some month of 306 H. We shall discuss about this too as we proceed. All the scholars and historians are unanimous about the Sheikh’s death which was in the year 383 H. This would mean that he lived to an age of 75 years.
 
Among the mentors of Sheikh Sudooq his father, Ali ibne Hussain Qummi, was the first. His other well known tutors were Ibrahim Burki and Mohammed ibne Hussain ibne Walid. The names of about 150 scholars have been listed by historians as the persons from whom he had the privilege of receiving instruction. There is also a formidable list of his disciples who benefited from his knowledge. His most outstanding disciple was Sheikh Mufeed. Sheikh Mufeed is accepted by many authorities as the Mujaddad of the 4th Century H. Another famous disciple was Najashi. Najashi’s father too was a disciple of Sheikh Qudoos. Ibne Zaheri, the most famous scholar of his time, too was the Sheikh’s student. But the most important heritage left behind by Sheikh Sudooq is the books written by him. The tomes of history record about 300 books authored by Sheikh Sudooq but 220 books are available in the libraries of the world.
 
Sheikh Sudooq’s most popular book is “Mun laa yahdar al faqeeh”. Another very well known book is “Madinat al Ilm”. But unfortunately the book is out of print and no copies are available. Another popular book of his is “Ilal al Sharaeh”.  This too is a very important book on Fiqh and Hadith. Sheikh Sudooq has dealt with the purpose of the mandatory practices like Wadu (ablution) and why is it prescribed; Why one should do Ruku (Genuflection ) during prayers; Why Tawaf (Circumambulation) around the Kaaba is mandatory during the Haj and why one should circumambulate 7 times; why pebbles should be thrown at the Shaitans; why the Seegha (The Pronouncement of Marriage ) is recited at the time of marriages; why the proposals for marriages have to be initiated by the boy’s family and not the girls? Thus he has dealt with all the questions that might arise in the matter of Shariah in the light of the sayings of the Infallibles (a.s). This book has already been translated into Urdu. Another very popular book written by Sheik Sadooq is “Kitab al aiteqaadiya”--- it is a treatise one the beliefs of the Shias. This is a small but comprehensive book. Every Momin must peruse this book at least once! The other smaller books authored by him are: “Sawab al Aamaal”, Iqaab al Aamaal”, “Sifaat al Shia”, “Muaani al Akhbaar”etc.  Another Book on Tradoitions with numbers Khisal by Shaikh Sudooq
 
We shall have to deal at length with the life and works of Sheik Sudooq because he is the author of one of the 4 great books, “Mun laa Yahdar al Faqeeh”. The great scholars have eulogized this book profusely. After Yaqub Kulaini, Sheik Qudoos came to propagate the word of the Imams (a.s) after the Imam e Zamana (a.s) went into hiding. A person who isn’t aware of the works of Sheik Sudooq, he is ignorant of the basics of the Shia Faith.
 
Sheik Sadooq hailed from the town of Qum. Qum has always been the center for the followers of the Aal e Mohammed (s.a). There is a tradition of the 6th Imam ( Imam Jafar e Sadiq a.s) who said that the people of Qum genuflex and prostrate in prayer! They are scholars and people with intelligence. This tradition manifests that during the time of the 6th Imam (a.s) Qum had established its reputation as a center for Islamic Learning. The people in this town always approached the Ulema seeking solutions for their religious queries.
 
Making a reference to the people of Qum, I must mention here that they during the reign of any Caliph or king, made access only to their Ulema for the solution of their problems and never approached the corporal authorities.The beliefs of the people were firm. They received instructions directly from the disciples of the Imam (a.s). A time came when concerted efforts were made to deter the followers of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s) from the Right Path. They created such situations that the people considered the status of the Maasoomeen (a.s) on par with Allah. But the beliefs of the people of Qum remained steadfast that they always looked to the Ulema for guidance. They didn’t manifest any Ghluv (excessive Exagerration) because they were aware of Hazrat Ali (a.s)’s saying:
 
“Two persons will be destroyed ---the one who exaggerates my status and the other who belittles it!”
 
When the Ghalees (Fanatic Exagerraters) were convinced that the people of Qum wouldn’t listen to their Ghuluv ( excessive exaggeration), they started berating the Ulema of Qum. When the time of Ali ibne Babawiya Qummi came, the people used to look to him for guidance in all matters, spiritual or corporal, although it was in the Abbasid Realm and a governor was located there. Sheik Sudooq was later to be born to this great scholar and cleric.
 
Sheik Sadooq’s father too was a person of high erudition. Imam Hassan Askari (a.s) had written a letter to him in the following manner:
 
After praising Allah, His Prophet (s.a) and the Imams (a.s), he addressed the Sheik as Mautamad (Secretary) and Cleric, Abal Hassan Ali ibne Hussain Babawiya Qummi. Then he prayed for the Sheik to be endowed with righteous progeny. Then he made a lengthy exhortation to the Sheik asking him to establish prayer, pay the Zakat and fulfill his obligations towards his kin (Sila ar Rehm). He also asked the Sheik to cultivate the habit of offering the Nightly Prayers ( Namaz e Shab). The Imam (a.s) said that he was making this exhortation because the Prophet (s.a), in his last moments, had said to Hazrat Ali (a.s), ‘ O Ali! Offer the Namaz e Shab! One who belittled the Namaz e Shab has no relationship with us!’ Then the Imam (a.s) writes to the Sheik that it was his bounden duty to guide the Shias to implicitly follow this exhortation. In the end the Imam (a.s) exhorted the Sheik to ardently await the arrival of the Last Imam (a.s) because the Prophet (s.a) had said that the best act for his Umma was to await the arrival of the Imam (a.s)! Then Imam Hassan Askari (a.s) concluded the letter with some details about the Last Imam (a.s)”
 
It must be noted that the Imam (a.s) chose to write a letter to the Sheik’s father and made the same exhortation to him that the Prophet (s.a) made to Ameer al Momineen (a.s). Such a person of piety was Sheik Sudooq’s father.
 
After the martyrdom of the Eleventh Imam (a.s), there was a subtle movement to divert the attention of the followers from the Imam in Hiding (a.s). Sheik Sudooq’s father was one of the persons who opposed this movement with great force. In the absence of the Imam (a.s) some impostors had raised their heads claiming that they were the deputies of the Imam (a.s). There were at least 7 or 8 such impostors about whom the Imam e Zamana (a.s) had written a letter to his nominated deputy condemning them and also warned his followers to keep away from them. Some of these impostors were the companions of the Eleventh Imam (a.s) and people held them in some respect because of this fact. They behaved the same way as some of the companions of the Prophet (s.a) who turned hypocrites when he was in the last throes of death and immediately thereafter. Abu Mohammed Shariati was one such impostor who first claimed that he was the deputy of the Imam in Hiding (a.s). Then he went to the extent of claiming that he was a prophet and that he had been anointed as such by Allah. Then he said that the 10th Imam (a.s) himself was Allah. Among the impostors too was Hussain ibne Mansoor Hallaf who used to recite the following words:  An al Haq, An al Haq  I am god I am god
On the basis of an edict by the clerics, the ruler of the time executed him. He was inflicted with a thousand flogs before he was executed. When he was held for execution, he tried to frighten the clerics by saying that god was in his blood and that he will avenge his blood. After his execution the body was burned and the ashes were consigned to the river Dajla. It so happened that there was a flood in the river that year. The water over flew the shores of the river. This strengthened the false belief of some of his followers. They believed that the river too didn’t accept the ashes of Ibne Mansoor Hallaf and it went into spate. Ibne Hallaf had thought that Qum was the important center for the Shias and he therefore entered there to carry on his mission. He found that the most important person in Qum at that time was Ali ibne Babawiya Qummi. He therefore wrote to him a letter saying that since he was a follower of the Faith of Mohammed (s.a) he should know that he (Ibne Mansoor Hallaf) was the Deputy of the Imam (a.s) and that his hands be strengthened. He wrote similar letters to other clerics as well. All these clerics rejected his contention in different ways. One of the clerics wrote to him that he had grown bald because of old age and said that he would accept him as the deputy of the Imam (a.s) if made his hair grow afresh. When Sheik Sadooq got such a letter from him, he shredded it into smithereens and told the persons gathered at that time that Ibne Mansoor Hallaf was an impostor. Sheik Sadooq’s father used to run a shop in Qum. One day when he reached near his shop he noticed a person sitting in front of the shop and many curious persons were surrounding him. Since he was the chief of the town those days, the persons moved away from that man and came near him. He asked one of the persons as to the identity of the man who sat in front of his shop. They informed him that it was Hussain ibne Mansoor Hallaf. Ibne Mansoor intruded saying why he wasn’t directly asked to reveal his identity instead of asking the other persons. Sheik Sadooq’s father said that he intended to give due respect to him by asking other persons to identify him. He however asked him now to identify himself. Ibne Mansoor said that he was the person whose letter was shredded by his interlocutor. Hearing this, the Sheik’s father got furious and asked his slave to throw the person out of the ramparts of the town..Ibne Mansoor never again entered the bounds of the city of Qum. This proves the respect that Sheik Qudoos’s father enjoyed in the city.
 
Sheik Sudooq’s father, the 4th Deputy of the Imam (a.s) and Mohammed ibne Yaqub Kulaini died in the year 329 H. In that year many other prominent clerics too died. Therefore it is called the Year of the Breaking of the Stars. It is mentioned in the books of history that one day the 4th Deputy of the Imam (a.s), Ali ibne Mohammed Samri, was setting with an assembly of persons in Baghdad when he said, “Yarham Allah-- May Allah be kind on Ali ibne Hussain Babawiya Qummi!” When he uttered these words, the assembled persons asked him the reason for saying what he said. They said that these words are used for deceased persons and Ali ibne Hussain Babawiya Qummi was alive. He replied that the person had just died. The assembly was surprised and they made a note of the date and time of the statement. When a caravan arrived at Baghdad , after many months, from Qum, they informed that their erudite cleric, Ali ibne Hussain Babawiya Qummi had expired on that day and at the time mentioned by Ali ibne Mhammed Samri sitting with his friends at Baghdad.
 
Sheik Sadooq’s father was married to the daughter of his paternal uncle, Mohammed ibne Hassan babawiya Qummi. For a very long time he remained issueless. It is said that when Hussain ibne Rooh was ordained the 3rd Deputy of the 12th Imam (a.s), Sheik Sudooq’s father was still residing in Qum and Hussain ibne Rooh was a resident of Baghdad that is hundreds of miles away from there. In those days traversing that distance was rather a difficult task. The Sheikh’s father once traveled to Baghdad. That was the time when the 2nd Deputy of the Imam (a.s) had expired and Hussain ibne Rooh had assumed charge of his responsibilities. .Ali ibne Babawiya Qummi met him and had a long discussion on many issues. Some scholars are of the view that after meeting the Deputy, he personally went to the presence of the Imam (a.s). But there isn’t any positive proof of this meeting. After this visit, Ali Ibne Babawiya returned back to Qum.
 
After returning to Qum he sent a letter to Hussain Ibne Rooh through a person, Ali ibne Jafar, requesting him to communicate his submission to the Imam (a.s) to offer prayer to Allah for endowing him with issues. Hussain ibne Rooh replied to him saying that he would present his case to the Imam (a.s) and would revert back with the reply in three days. There are different versions recorded by different scholars. But the sum total is that the Imam (a.s) had replied that Ali Ibne Babawiya will remain issueless from his the then spouse and that soon he would marry a Kaneez hailing from Deelam who would bear him children who will be a source of blessing to him. Deelam is a place in Iraq. The Imam (a.s) also said that this spouse would bear him 2 sons who will be erudite scholars and clerics and would be a great source of benefit to the people. He was also asked by the Imam (a.s) to name one of the son’s as Muhammed and the other as Hussain. In the end the Imam (a.s) communicated to him that he would pray to Allah that the two sons should bring him both spiritual and worldly benefit. The actual year of the birth of Sheik Sadooq isn’t recorded by any historian with authority. But they have made a circumstantial guess that since his father met Hussain Ibne Rooh in 305 H and communicated his request, Sheik Sadooq must have taken birth either in 305 H or 306 H. Sheik Sadooq always took pride in the fact that he was born with the special prayer of the 12trh Imam (a.s) and also that he was given a name by the Imam (a.s) himself. The given name of Sheik Sadooq was Mohammed and his younger brother was named Hussain. Sheik Sadooq had another brother who, although a very pious person, wasn’t an erudite scholar unlike his elder brothers.
 
In their early days of education, Mohammed and Hussain, were known for their memory and power of retention. Whatever they heard once, never escaped their memory. The people of Qum used to be surprised at this faculty of the little brothers. Their mentors used to be surprised at the prowess of these children. Sheik Sadooq was known to the people as Sadooq because of his implicit truthfulness. His truthfulness was complemented by his strong memory that he remembered every event verbatim and was able to recount it word for word! Thus he is rightly remembered with the title of Sadooq!!
 
The Sheik and his father together are remembered as Sadooqain---or the two truthful ones! If you find a mention in any book quoting Sadooq, it would mean that the reference is only to him. But if in another place the mention is of Sadooqain, the reference is both to the son and the father. There is one very interesting event about Sheik Sudooq that I must mention here.
 
Sheik Bahai, who is accepted as the Mujaddad of the10th Century H, writes that once people asked him whether Zakaria ibne Adam was greater or Sheik Sadooq? Zakaria ibne Adam  was a companion of Imam Ali ibne Moosa (a.s). There is a tradition of Imam Ali ibne Moosa (a.s) about this pious person. They told him that their homes were in a far away place and it wasn’t easy for them to approach him with their queries. The Imam (a.s) replied that they need not travel the long distance and they could refer their queries to his companion, Zakariya ibne Adam, who was a dependable person both in the matters of the Faith and the world! Sheik Bahai further writes that after some days Sheik Sadooq came in his dream and complained that when a question was asked to compare him with Zakariya ibne Adam, why did he ignore him and praised Zakariya ibne Adam? The Sheik said in the dream that he didn’t know that they both were of the same status!
 
Sheik Sadooq came to Baghdad in the year 355 H. Leading scholars and clerics accepted him as their mentor although he was a very young person at the time. Sheik Mufeed too became his disciple  It is accepted that the Infallibles (a.s) too provided support to his mission of propagation of the word of the Ahl al Bayt (a.s)  His book, Akmaal al Deen wa Atmam al Nema, is on the topic of the Ghaibat (Hiding) of the 12th Imam (a.s). In the preface to this book Sheik Sadooq writes about how he wrote the book. He writes that once he traveled from Qum to the holy city of Mashad to visit the mausoleum of the Imam (a.s). After paying obeisance at the mausoleum, he proceeded towards the town of Naisahapur. In Naishapur there were many followers of the Imam (a.s) and were very prosperous and wielded much power. When he reached Naishapur, people started coming to meet him. He felt that many residents of Naishapur were having doubt about the Ghaibat of the Imam (a.s). He felt that their faith was not firm. He resolved to stay back in Naishapur till he was able to correct the belief of the people there. He started imparting education to them on the Quran, the traditions of the Prophet (s.a) and the Ahl al Bayt (a.s). Slowly they came round to believing about the Ghaibat of the Last Imam (a.s). He then took leave of the people of Naishapur and returned to Qum. It was the period when Sheik Sadooq was a resident of Rai and had left Qum in his early youth. Rai is in the neighborhood of present day Tehran. Rai is also the place where the mausoleum of Shahzada Abdul Azeem is located. He had preferred to settle in Rai because it was the place of Mohammed ibne Yaqub Kulaini. While Sheik Sadooq was in Qum, the great scholar from Bukhara, Sheik Najmuddin Abu Saeed Mohammed ibne Hassan Qummi paid a visit there. Sheik Sadooq felt that he must meet Sheik Najmuddin. At the first meeting Sheik Sadooq developed brotherly liking for him. .They started meeting regularly and frequently.
 
Once, during a discussion, Sheik Najmuddin told him that in Bukhara lived a learned philosopher and logician and that he had once a detailed discussion with him. After the talk with him, two doubts entered Sheik Najmuddin’s mind about the Imam (a.s). The first doubt was how the Imam (a.s) would live to such a long age?  The second doubt in his mind was why Allah had to send the Imam (a.s) into long hiding? Why did He terminate his contact with the Ummat? Sheik Sadooq convinced him in the light of the sayings of the Infallibles (a.s). But Sheik Sadooq was himself worried that such doubts are entering even the minds of erudite scholars. In such circumstances there could be likelihood of people going astray in large numbers. One night, worrying about these circumstances he remembered and missed his wife and children. With these thoughts he slept and after a while he saw a dream that he was standing at Makkah Mukarrama. It was the period of the Haj and he was attired in the Ihram. He passed a cursory glance over his Ihram and he proceeded towards the Kaabah. After completing the 7 circumambulations of the Kaabah he put his hand on the Hajr al Aswad and recited the prayer prescribed for the act. In this prayer one converses with the Hajr al Aswad and one says, “ O Hajr al Aswad! I have fulfilled my wow and have delivered to you what I had resolved to deliver!” This prayer is very effective and thought provoking. He was reciting the prayer once again, putting his hand on the Hajr al Aswad, he noticed a personage standing near the wall of the Kaabah. He felt that it certainly must be the Imam e Zamana (a.s)! He instantly left the place of the Hajr al Aswad and reached near the Imam (a.s) and fell near his feet. The Imam (a.s) could gauge from Sheik Sadooq’s face about his worry. The Imam (a.s) said, “O Mohammed ibne Ali! You are you worrying about this issue? See! You were born as an answer to our prayer to Allah! We have a right over you that you must discharge! You must write a book on the subject of our Gheebat ( Hiding)! This will expel the doubts of the people in the matter.” Sheik Sadooq said, “O Imam (a.s)! All the books I have written do contain the traditions about your Gheebat! Even then people continue to have their doubts!” The Imam (a.s) said, “You must write a book different from what you have been writing about the Imams (a.s). First you must write about the Prophets (a.s) and the periods of ghaibat that they had undergone. Then you must talk about our Ghaibat. You must also write about the longevity of persons that the history has recorded that they lived for hundreds of years. Thus you can expel the doubts in the minds of people about our long Ghaibat. May Allah help you in your effort !”
 
The Sheik says that he immediately awoke from his dream. Tears were running down his cheeks. He was happy that he had been highly blessed on that day. The first thing that he did in the morning that he picked up the pen and commenced writing the book on the subject and gave this work the title of Akmaal al Deen wa Atmaam al Nema or Perfection of the Faith & Fulfillment of Blessings (.Kamaluddin 1 pdf   |   Kamuluddin 2 pdf   NEW ) Thus a great book on the Ghaibat of the Imama e Zamana (a.s) came into our hands. You may remember that there is a tradition about the Jazeera e Khizra (The Green Island) in our books of traditions. The white islands ( Jazeera e Abyad) are surrounding this island. There are three traditions about this island in our books that have reached us through the writings of the erudite scholar, Nemat Allah al Jazaeri. It is a long tradition that describes how some persons had reached the island. One tradition is about some Christians reaching the island. There is also a narrative about a follower of Shafaee who witnessed the kingdom of Imam (a.s) and also that he saw the Naibeen (Deputies) of the Imam (a.s). The narrator says that wherever he went in the Jazeera e Khizra, he found the names of the five erudite scholars--- the first name was that of Mohammed ibne Yaqub Kulaini, who wrote the Usool e Kaafi, the second name was that of Sheik Sadooq, the third was Sheik Mufeed, the fourth Sayed Murtada and the fifth name was that of Najm al Deen Qasim ibne Mutahir Hilli who is the author of Shara e al Islam. He says that wherever he went in the island he heard these five names. This is the Kingdom of the Imam (a.s) where his deputies are ruling.
 
One book written by Sheik Sadooq is Man la Yahdar al Faqeeh. This is the book only next to Usool e Kaafi and it contains 9,044 traditions. The very title of the book indicates its importance. It means the book is for persons who don’t have any access to any cleric or Mujtahid. The Sheikh has very deftly dealt with the day to day problems that ordinary persons face in their lives and the solutions in light of the traditions of the Prophet (s.a) and the Ahl al Bayt.(a.s). It deals with the same problems as are dealt in Tauzeeh al Masael. But the difference is that he has handled the subjects in the form of traditions of the Infallibles (a.s). For example: you read in the Tauzeeh that 4 things are mandatory for doing the ablution. The Sheik writes that as said by the Imam (a.s) five or six steps are prescribed by the Imam (a.s) for the ablution. All the traditions quoted by Sheik Sadooq in this book on the day to day problems and he hasn’t quoted any two traditions that contradict each other. For any problem he has quoted only one tradition. This was possible because of his exceptional memory. Some scholars are of the view that because of this prowess his book becomes more important than the Usool e Kaafi.
 
Mohammed Yaqub Kulaini did tremendous work collecting the traditions from umpteen sources. But Sheik Sadooq’s speciality is that he was fully aware of the lives of the narrators because of his exceptional memory. Not only Sheik Sadooq was a cleric and Mujtahid of very high category but he was an adept at Ilm e Kalam. Ilm e Kalam means the study of the Shia Faith to reply to the objections raised by its opponents--- the objections could be either for Tauheed, Risalat or Imamat. Therefore many a Munazera ( Debate) made by the Sheik are on record. Whenever he heard of any such remarks made by the opponents, he would personally travel, despite being a cleric of very high caliber, and actively debate with the other parties. There are umpteen persons who have adopted the Right Path because of the convincing arguments of Sheik Sadooq.
 
The very famous debate that Sheik Sadooq had was in the court of Rukn al Dawla who was the ruler of the territory of Deelam in Iraq. Rukn al Dawla had heard a lot about Sheik Sadooq’s erudition. Therefore he wrote a letter to him and invited him to Deelam. The Sheik went to his court. He was received there with great care and respect.and was seated near the ruler in the court.
 
Sheik Sadooq had very useful discussions with Ruk al Dawla. The king was so much impressed that he said that” if there is any truth in a faith, it is in this Faith!”. The first question that the king asked Sheik Sadooq was that the Shias talk ill of some people and pass remarks against them while all the Muslims feel that there is no need to criticize others. Sheik Sadooq replied, “O king! Do you know the way of Allah and His Sunnat that He doesn’t accept anything unless the opposite of it isn’t rejected! Unless one repudiates the false gods the true God (Allah) will not accept one’s belief in Him! Similarly one will not be firm in accepting the true Prophet unless he repudiates the false prophets like Maslima the Liar! Similarly when one professes faith in the True Imams (a.s) he has to reject those who have been claiming to be the imams of the Muslims! He will have to reject those who had usurped the position of the Imams (a.s). Rukn al Dawla immediately asked the Sheik his opinion about the persons who sat in the place of the Imams (a.s).  The Sheik replied referring to the Surat al Bara’at and he asked the king to remember the incident when the Prophet (s.a) asked one person to take the Sura, also known as Surat al Tauba, to Makkah and propagate it with the people there. As the person commenced his journey to Makkah, Gabriel came and communicated the order from Allah that the verse in question couldn’t be communicated to the people of Makkah by anyone other than the Prophet (s.a) or a person who is from him (the Prophet)! When Allah doesn’t trust any person propagating a single Verse, how could such a person be entrusted with the propagation and dissemination of Faith and the entire Book of Allah?!! Rukn ad Dawla understood the argument but one of the courtiers stood up and said, “O Sheik! There is a tradition of the Prophet (s.a) saying that his Ummat will not congregate behind falsehood. He also said that if it had congregated behind one person, he certainly must be a righteous person.” The Sheik explained saying that the Prophet (s.a) didn’t categorize the entire Ummat in this tradition. The Ummat can mean as few as three individuals. In view of the Holy Quran even one person would form an Ummat
 
Sheik Sadooq further says that even a common intellect doesn’t accept this tradition quoted by the person. Then he asked Rukn ad Dawla, “ If we have two alternatives, either to accept the Prophet (s.a) as correct or the Ummat, which alternative would we accept? Rukn al Dawla replied that we would certainly consider the Prophet (s.a) correct. The Sheik said that people believe that the Prophet (s.a) didn’t nominate his successor. If we do accept this contention, and if, certainly nominating a successor is necessary, and even then he didn’t nominate one, then wouldn’t he be termed at fault? (Our belief is that the Prophet (s.a) did nominate his successor!). If nomination of a successor was necessary, and the Prophet (s.a) didn’t nominate and the Ummat took it upon itself to select one, then the Ummat is at fault! Should we contend that nomination of a successor was not at all necessary and the Ummat, in its fault, selected one!!
 
After this discussion and debate, the conditions for the followers of the Progeny of the Prophet (s.a) became more congenial. In the heart of Rukn ad Dawla the love for the True Faith awakened.
 
Sheik Sadooq spent his entire life propagating the word of the Ahl al Bayt and he breathed his last in 381 H. and he was interred near the mausoleum of Shah Abdul Azeem in Rai. His grave is visited by people even today. Fath Ali got a tomb and sarcophagus constructed on the grave of Sheik Sadooq. About two hundred years ago, in 1238 H, it rained very hard in that area and the graves were sundered open, The Sheik’s grave was in a cellar. When it rained very hard his grave too was badly damaged. The author of Rauzat al Janna, Aghai Ibrahim Nawasani, writes that when the water entered the grave with force, he visited the place. When he entered the cellar he noticed that the grave was totally open and he found that Sheik Sadooq was lying there as if he was peacefully asleep. After such a long time of his expiry the marks of dye on his nails were visible as if it was applied on the same day. Even the cloth in which the Sheik’s body was wrapped hadn’t deteriorated. A spider had made a web around the Sheiik’s body as if it was protecting it. Seeing this, Aghai Nawasani came away. When this news spread in the town, it also reached the ears of Fath Ali. He himself visited the site but didn’t enter the cellar finding a big crowd there. He got the Sheik wrapped in a fresh coffin, got the mausoleum constructed and sealed the cellar. This incident proves the greatness of Sheik Sadooq. Before his birth the Imam (a.s) prayed for him and after his death the spider knit a web around his body that reminds us what happened to the Prophet (s.a) in the cave at Thoor!

 Source Urdu Lectures of Moulana Sadiq Hassan Book


Shaikh Saduq (a.s) from  http://www.dartabligh.org/biographies/sheikh_sadooq.html

The author of this book (Sheikh Sadooq) - May God have Mercy upon him - is the highly esteemed, noble Abi Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Al-Hussein ibn Musa ibn Babooyeh al-Qummi known as Sheikh Sadooq. He has such a high rank in knowledge, understanding, realization of the true meaning of traditions, jurisprudence, honesty in speech and extensive highly valuable writings that no one can write about and fully express these. All the knowledgeable people who have either written hisbiography or used his highly valuable books have tried to praise his works and declare his Divine Leadership and honesty. They have called him Sheikh that is normally the title of native scholars trained in the traditional sciences such as clerical dignitaries, members of a religious order, or professors of spiritual institutions of higher learning - that is master of an order.  He has also been called honest and a forerunner.

We can say that he has been one of the signs of God. He passed away in the year 381 A.H. (990 A.D.) when he was more than seventy years old. His publications – that were more than 300 in number - were like brilliant stars guiding those who sought to follow the Divine Path. Unfortunately, the tragic occurrences in history resulted in the loss of the majority of his works. We can clearly state that not even one tenth of his writings have remained up until today. His Nobility as Expressed by Noble Religious Scholars There is no need to present any evidence or reasoning to prove his high rank.

However, we will briefly mention a few of the remarks of our noble religious scholars about his noble personality here for the readers to get a bit more familiar with him.

Sheikh al-Taefeh (may God have mercy upon him) has called him 'of a high position' in his book Al-Fehrest. Then he wrote,
''He is the protector of the traditions, ware and informed about the personalities, and is an informed person and a critic on Akhbar (traditions). One has not seen anyone of similar capabilities among the scientists in Qum. He has about 300 publications.'' He also makes similar remarks about him in his Rijal.

Najjashi who was a great researcher on 'great men' calls him 'Abi Ja'far from Qum'. He also calls him Sheikh, our jurisprudent, a shining character, and the honor of the Shiites in Khorasan<!--[if !supportFootnotes]-->[1]<!--[endif]-->. He wrote, "When in the year 355 A.H. (965 A.D.) he entered Baghdad, he was young. The great men of the Shiites listened to him to learn traditions and gain Divine Knowledge."

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in his famous book TARIKH BAGHDAD (the history of Baghdad) wrote, "He (Sheikh Sadooq) went to Baghdad and quoted traditions on the authority of his father. He was one of the well-known and noble men of the Shiites, and Muhammad ibn Talha an-Naáli told me about him." Ibn Edris has praised him in his book SARA'IR and said, "He was honest in speech, noble, informed about the traditions and a critic. He was very knowledgeable about the great men. He had memorized many traditions."

Allameh al-Hilli has called him Sheikh, and has said that he is our jurisprudent, our honor, and the bright and real character of the Shiites.

He has been called the following titles by the noble religious Shiite scholars: Ibn Shahr Ashoob; Seyed ibn Tawoos; Fakhr al-Mohaghegin; ash-Shahid al-Awwal (the first martyr); Re'is al-Mohaditheen; al-Sheikh al-Ajall; Imam Asreh; Rokn Min Arkan ad-Din (one of the pillars of religion); Sadooq al-Muslimeen; Ayatullah fil-Alemin; al-Sheikh al-A'zam; al-Sheikh al-Sadooq; Hujatul Islam; al-Sheikh ath-Thiqa; al-Molood Bid-Da'wat; al-Sheikh al-Imam al-Moghaddam; al-Fadhil al-Mo'adhdham; Omdatul Fudhala; Sheikh Minal-Mashayekh; Rokn min Arkan ash-Sharia; Sheikh al-Hafazah; Wajihat at-Ta'efah al-Mostahfazeh; Emaduddin; and al-Sheikh al-Alam Al-Amin, among many other titles.

His Trips

He made many trips to various towns in order to learn nobility and hear the traditions directly from the greatest scholars. He was born in Qum, raised there and he acquired knowledge from the great scholars there. Then, although there were many renowned religious scholars in Ray[2], the people of Ray invited him to go and reside there. Of course, there is no precise mention of the date of his immigration to Ray in the books on Rijal and Tarajom.

However, one can conclude from what is written in this book, and in Al-Khisal and Amali, that his immigration was after the (Arabic) month of Rajab of the (lunar) year 339 A.H. (949 A.D.), and before the (Arabic) month of Rajab of the year 347 A.H. (957 A.D.) This is because he has cited a tradition he had heard from Hamza ibn Ahmad ibn Ja'far ibn Muhammad ibn Zayd ibn Ali ibn al-Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (MGB) in the Quran on the first date, and has cited another tradition from Abul Hassan Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Asad al-Asadi known as Ibn Jaradeh al-Bardaýee in Ray on the second date.

He lived in Ray from 347 A.H. (957 A.D.) until he requested permission from Rokn ud-Dowleh - the ruler of the Buya clan - to visit the holy shrine of Imam Al-Reza (MGB) in Mashhad. He then traveled to Mashhad in 352 A.H. (962 A.D.) and returned to Ray after visiting the holy shrine. Regarding this he wrote in his book, "When I asked the successful ruler Rokn ud-Dowleh for permission to visit the holy shrine of Imam Al-Reza (MGB), he approved of my request in the (Arabic) month of Rajab in the year 352 A.H. (962 A.D.) When I returned home, he called me in again and said, 'The place you want to visit is a blessed place of martyrdom. I have visited it myself. When I was there, I asked God to fulfill the requests I had in my mind. God answered my prayers and fulfilled them. Therefore, when you get there, remember me, and do not forget to visit on my behalf and pray for me since prayers will be fulfilled by God when they are presented in that holy place.' I promised him to do so, and I fulfilled my promise. Upon my return from the blessed Mashhad, I went to see the ruler. He asked me if I had prayed for him, and visited the Shrine on his behalf. I replied in the positive. He said, 'You did well since it has been proven to me that prayers will be accepted there.'

On this trip to Mashhad that year, he entered Neishaboor. He recorded some traditions from the religious scholars there, among whom we can name Abu Ali Hussein ibn Ahmad Bayhaqi - who narrated several traditions for him in his own house – Abdul Vahid ibn Muhammad ibn Ubdoos Neishaboori, Abi Mansoor Ahmad ibn Ibrahim ibn Bakr Khori, Abu Saeed Muhammad ibn Fadhl ibn Muhammad ibn Ishaq Mozakkar Neishaboori known as Abi Saeed al-Muallem, Abut-Tayyeb Hussein ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Razi and Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahab al-Sejezy. In addition, Abu Nasr Ahmad ibn Al-Hussein ibn Ahmad ibn Obayd al-Zabee al-Marwani al-Neishaboori cited some traditions for him in Neishaboor. In addition, a group of people cited traditions
for him in Marv Rood among whom we can name the jurisprudent Abul Hussein Muhammadibn Ali ibn al-Shah, and Abu Yusuf Rafeh ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul Malik. In the same year, he traveled to Baghdad and heard some traditions from the religious scholars there. He had also gone to Kufa, Fayd, Mawara' un-Nahr, Balkh, Samarqand and Forghaneh and had heard traditions from the religious scholars in these cites.

The Birth of the Author - May God Have Mercy upon Him We are not precisely aware of the year in which he has born. None of the biographers has stated his birth date. However, we can draw some conclusions in this regard from his own book KAMAL AD-DIN, and Sheikh Toosi's GHAYBA and Najashi's FEHREST that he was born after the demise of Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Umari who was the second (of the four) representatives of the twelfth Imam (MGB) - that is in year 305 A.H. (917 A.D.) at the beginning of the mission of Abil Qasim Hussein ibn Ruh - who was the third representative of the twelfth Imam (MGB).
Sheikh Sadooq quoted on the authority of Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Aswad, 'After the demise of Muhammad ibn Uthman al-Umari - may God be pleased with him - Ali ibn Hussein ibn Musa ibn Babawayh asked me to ask Hussein ibn Ruh to ask our Master - the Imam of Time (the twelfth Imam al-Mahdi) (MGB) - to pray and ask God the Almighty to grant him a son. I did so, and he secretly reported that. He informed me after three days that the Imam (MGB) had prayed for Ali ibn Al-Hussein, and that God the Almighty will soon bless him with a son, and will grant him more children thereafter.'

The above has also been cited by Sheikh al-Ta'ifeh and Najjashi - may God have mercy upon them. What has been presented about his birth-date was the information available from him himself who best knows about his life history and some of the great religious scholars. Thus, we can conclude that he was born after the year 305 A.H (917 A.D.). His birth was a blessing, and he was blessed since he was born due to the prayers of the Imam of Time (MGB). Everyone benefited from him, and his being blessed. That is why he was always very proud and said that he was born due to the prayers of the Imam of Time (MGB). He also said, 'There were many occasions when Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ali al-Asvaed (who narrated the details about his birth) saw how studiously I attended the classes of our Professor - Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn al-Valid (May God have mercy upon him); and how eager I was to learn and memorize scientific books. He would tell me there is no wonder I am so eager to acquire knowledge since I was born due to the prayers of the Imam of Time (MGB).' The Death of the Author and His Shrine

The Death of the Author and His Shrine

He died in 381 A.H. (990 A.D.) after living for seventy years. He was buried in Ray next to the Toghrol Garden, near the shrine of the blessed Abdul Azeem al-Hassani - may God be pleased with him. His shrine is simple, but spiritual. Many people go visit his shrine and receive blessings.

A Demonstration of his Nobility

In the year 1238 A.H. (1859 A.D.) Fath Ali - the king of Qajar - ordered the building of the shrine to be reconstructed. This resulted in a demonstration of nobility. The word spread around among the people, and it was finally approved of by the government officials and the king. The details of this event have been recorded by many authors - may God have mercy upon them. Among them we can mention ROWZA by Khansari, QISAS AL-ULAMA by Tonikaboni, TANQIH AL-MAQAL by Mamaghani, MONTAKHAB UL-TAWARIKH by Khorasani and TAVA'ED AR-RAZAVIEH by Qumi. This has been recorded in ROWZA by Khansari as follows: 'This event was a demonstration of the nobility of the Sheikh. It attracted the attention of many people, and was a source of guidance for many and a cause of happiness for many enlightened people.

There once appeared a rupture in the shrine of the noble Sheikh - that is located near Ray - due to a flood. When they investigated to find the degree of damage done in order to reconstruct it, they reached a room in which he was buried. Once they entered that room they found his body naked, with his private parts covered, and in perfect shape. His face was absolutely peaceful and they could still see the polish (khadhab) on his nails. The shroud with which his body was wrapped at the time he was buried had worn out, torn into shreds and fallen down on the dirt around his corpse. The news rapidly spread around in Tehran. When Fath Ali - the grandfather of Naser ad-Din - the king of Qajar heard about this around the year 1238 A.H. (1859 A.D.), he went there in person to investigate. He consulted with the government officials whom he trusted as to whether or not he should enter the tomb in person.

They did not recommend the king entering the tomb, as they thought this was not appropriate for his rule. Then a group of religious scholars and well-known people were sent into the tomb to check the issue. When the numerous people who had entered the tomb all testified to the truth of this issue, no doubt was left for the king.

Once he was certain about the truth of this issue, he ordered the cavity to be closed off, and the building of the shrine to be reconstructed, and decorated in the best possible fashion using mirror work. I have personally seen some of the people who were present there. Some of our religious professors who are of the noble scholars have also described this event. And peace be upon him the day he is born, and the day he dies, and the day he is resurrected.'


Information from the Book 'Mawazih 'from www.ansariyan.org

Name and Lineage

Mohammed bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh; Abu Ja’far As-Saduq* al-Qummi –i.e. of Qum-; the master Sheikh and the head of the narrators.

His father was the respectful Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh: the master Sheikh of Qum in his time. He was also the most precedent, the master jurisprudent, and the most trustful of the ulema of his time.[1]

Birth and Early Life

Sheikh As-Saduq was born in Qum. Although it was impossible to define the very year in which he was born, it is well known that he was born after the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari (the second representative),[2] which was in the year 305 A.H. That was the opening year of the representation of Abu al-Qasim al-Hussein bin Rawh (the third representative), who died in 326 A.H.

As confirmation of this estimation, we provide the words of Sheikh As-Saduq himself in his book titled Kamal ud-Din wa Tamam un-Ni’ma:

Abu Ja'far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad related to us:

After the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari, Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh (i.e. As-Saduq’s father) asked me to tell Abu al-Qasim Ar-Rawhi –i.e. bin Rawh- to ask our master Sahib uz-Zaman[3] to pray to Allah for giving him a male baby.

Abu al-Qasim informed that he asked the Imam, who rejected. Three days later, Abu al-Qasim informed that the Imam (a) had prayed to Allah for Ali bin al-Hussein and he would be given a blessed male baby who would be the means by which Allah, Exalted is He, would benefit (many people). Moreover, many boys would come after that baby.

(Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad said) After a period, Ali bin al-Hussein was given Mohammed (i.e. As-Saduq) followed by many other boys.[4]

(Another Narrative)

Sheikh At-Tusi said that some people narrated from Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh and Abu Abdullah al-Hussein bin Ali bin Musa bin Babawayh (his brother) that Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad related to us:

After the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari, Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh (i.e. As-Saduq’s father) asked me to tell Abu al-Qasim Ar-Rawhi to ask our master Sahib uz-Zaman (a) to pray to Allah for giving him a male baby.

Abu al-Qasim informed that he asked the Imam, who rejected. Three days later, Abu al-Qasim informed that the Imam (a) had prayed to Allah for Ali bin al-Hussein and he would be given a blessed male baby who would be the means by which Allah, Exalted is He, would benefit (many people). Moreover, many boys would come after that baby.

(Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad said) I asked him to pray to Allah to give me a male baby, but he did not answer. He said: This is impossible.

After a period, Ali bin al-Hussein was given Mohammed (i.e. As-Saduq) followed by many other boys. For me, I was not given anything.

Abu Ja’far bin Babawayh commented: As he noticed me attending the classes of our master Mohammed bin al-Hussein bin al-Waleed frequently while I was interested in recording and retaining the items of knowledge, Abu Ja’far Mohammed bin Ali al-Aswad used to say to me, ‘It is not strange for you to have such an insistent desire for learning since you came to this world by the supplication of the Imam (a).[5]

Ar-Rawandi, in his al-Kharaa’ij, related the like of the previous narrative, yet brief.[6] Besides, At-Tabirsi, in his book titled A’lam ul-Wara[7], Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani, in his Tabssirat ul-Wali[8], and Sayyid Ali bin Abdul-Karim An-Najafi, in his Muntakhab ul-Anwar il-Mudhee’a[9], referred to the same narrative.

Imaduddin Mohammed bin Ali At-Tusi, in his Thaqib ul-Manaqib,[10] referred to a part of that narrative.

In his reference to the biography of Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa; As-Saduq’s father, An-Nejashi said that the man was in Iraq when he met Abu al-Qasim al-Hussein bin Rawh, Allah may have mercy be upon him, and asked him many questions. After that, As-Saduq’s father corresponded with Abu al-Qasim at the hands of Ali bin Ja’far bin al-Aswad and asked him to deliver a paper to Imam al-Mahdi, Allah may hasten his return, in which he asked for a male baby.

The answer was, ‘We have prayed to Allah for you and you will be given two virtuous male babies.’

Hence, Abu Ja’far and Abu Abdullah[11], whose mother was a bondwoman, were born.[12]

From the previous we can conclude that Sheikh As-Saduq, Allah may have mercy be upon him, had come to this world out of the prayer of Imam al-Hujja (a) after the death of Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari; after the year 305 A.H., when his father Sheikh Ali bin al-Hussein traveled to Iraq and met Abu al-Qasim al-Hussein bin Rawh and asked him some questions… etc. Hence, Sheikh As-Saduq was born in about 306 A.H.

Sheikh As-Saduq used to take pride in such a birth and say, ‘I was born due to the prayer of Imam al-Mahdi (a).’[13]

Sheikh As-Saduq grew up in the laps of virtue; his father used to feed him with the knowledge, shower him with the abundance of his knowledge and moralities, and circulate on him the lights of his purity, God-fearing, piety, and ascetics. All these contributed in the scholastic perfection and growth of Sheikh As-Saduq who lived under the wing of his father for more than twenty years during which he drank these knowledges and took from the great flow of his father’s information, moralities, and conducts. In addition, he grew up in the city of Qum which was swarming with the scholars and narrators, such as the master of the scholars of Qum Mohammed bin al-Hasan bin Ahmed bin al-Waleed and Hamza bin Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Ja’far bin Mohammed bin Zaid bin Ali as well as many others whose sessions and lectures were frequently attended by Sheikh As-Saduq.

After a short while, Sheikh As-Saduq became that great figure by whom people were benefiting. He also became such a distinctive sign of retaining and intelligence. He exceeded his companions in fields of virtue and knowledge and became such an unparalleled person.

Furthermore, the political circumstances of that period played a significant role in crystallizing the personality of Sheikh As-Saduq who lived in the reign of the Buyid in Iraq and Persia (321-447 A.H.), the Fatimids in Northern Africa (296-567 A.H.), and the Hamdanian State in Mousel –Northern Iraq- and Syria (333-394 A.H.)

It is well known that all these states were declaring their loyalty to the leadership of the Prophet’s household. In other words, they were Shia.

Scholastic Journeys

Not only was the intention of Sheikh As-Saduq to suffice with receiving knowledge from the master scholars of his town, but also it rose higher to encourage him to travel and emigrate far away from his hometown for seeking studies and knowledge. In the beginning, he traveled to the city of Ray to answer the summons of Rukn ad-Dawla al-Buwayhi (the Buyid), who died in 366 A.H. There, Sheikh As-Saduq met the scholars of that city, such like Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Ali bin Asad al-Asadi whose famous nickname is Abu Jurada al-Barda’i. That was in 347 A.H. He also met Ya’qoub bin Yousuf bin Ya’qoub, Ahmed bin Mohammed bin As-Saqr As-Sa’igh al-Adl (the decent), Abu Ali Ahmed bin al-Hasan al-Qattan and many others.

He then traveled to the city of Khurasan for the visitation of the Holy Shrine of Imam Ar-Ridha (a) in 352 A.H. After that, he returned to the city of Ray.

In 367 A.H., he made his second journey to the Holy Shrine of Imam Ar-Ridha (a). During his third journey which was made in 368 A.H., he passed by the cities of Istrabad[14] and Jurjan[15] where he attended the lectures of Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Mohammed bin al-Qasim Alistrabadi—the famous exegesist (of the Holy Quran) and orator. He also attended the classes of Sheikh Abu Mohammed al-Qasim bin Mohammed Alistrabadi, Sheikh Abu Mohammed Abdous bin Ali bin al-Abbas al-Jurjani, and Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali Alistrabadi.

In his journey back from the visitation of the Holy Shrine of Imam Ar-Ridha (a) Sheikh As-Saduq passed by the city of Nisapur and resided there for a period.

 About this residence, he said:

“After I had satisfied my wishes for the visitation of Imam Ali bin Musa Ar-Ridha (a) I was back in Nisapur where I resided. I found that the majority of the Shia there, who were frequently referring to me, were perplexed by the Invisibility –Ghaybah- and doubted the matter of al-Qa’im (a). They therefore left the right course of the submission (to Allah) to join the path of personal opinions and analogy. Hence, I exerted all my efforts for guiding them to the right and taking them back to the path of correctitude by means of the relevant narratives of the Prophet and the Imams, peace be upon them.”[16]

In Nisapur, Sheikh As-Saduq related the lessons of most of the scholars of that city, such like Sheikh Abu Ali al-Hussein bin Ahmed al-Bayhaqi, Sheikh Abdul-Wahid bin Mohammed bin Abdous An-Nisapuri, Sheikh Abu Mansour Ahmed bin Ibrahim bin Bakr al-Khuzi, Sheikh Abu Saeed Mohammed bin al-Fadhl bin Mohammed bin Ishaq al-Muthekkir An-Nisapuri, Sheikh Abu at-Tayyib al-Hussein bin Ahmed bin Mohammed Ar-Razi and many others.

As he passed by the cities of Marwalruth and Sarakhs[17], Sheikh As-Saduq attended the classes of Sheikh Mohammed bin Ali al-Marwalruthi, Sheikh Abu Yousuf bin Abdullah bin Abdul-Malik, and Sheikh Abu Nasr Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Tamim As-Sarakhsi.

In the years 352 and 355 A.H., Sheikh As-Saduq was in Baghdad where he learnt from Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Thabit Ad-Dawalibi, Sheikh Abu Mohammed al-Hasan bin Mohammed bin Yahya al-Husseini al-Alawi; Ibn Tahir, and Sheikh Ibrahim bin Harun al-Hiti as well as many others.

In 354 A.H., Sheikh As-Saduq had the honor to pilgrimage to the Holy House of Allah. In his way, he passed by Kufa and learnt from the master scholars there, such like Sheikh Mohammed bin Bakran An-Naqqash, Sheikh Ahmed bin Ibrahim bin Harun al-Fami, Sheikh al-Hasan bin Mohammed bin Saeed al-Hashimi, Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Easa al-Mujawir, Sheikh Abu Tharr Yahya bin Zaid bin al-Abbas bin al-Waleed al-Bezzaz, Sheikh Abu al-Qasim al-Hasan bin Mohammed As-Sakuni al-Kufi and many others.

He also traveled to many cities such as Hamadan, Ilaq, Balkh, Samarqand, Faraghana[18] and others.

In such journeys, Sheikh as-Saduq attended the lessons of many scholars in the cities that he passed by.

Scholastic State and Scholars’ Opinions

Sheikh As-Saduq, Allah may promote his position, was one of the master scholars of Shiism, great intellectuals, and well-versed men of knowledge. He was such a grand mastermind, abundant knowledgeable, and well informed. In his time, he was one of the most distinguishable scholars to whom everyone referred in questions concerning the rulings of the Sharia and was the sign upon whom everyone acted in the religious problems.

Sheikh At-Tusi; the master scholar of the sect mentioned Sheikh As-Saduq with the following words:

Mohammed bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh al-Qummi is the lofty master. His surname is Abu Ja’far. He was so admirable, good narrator of hadith, skillful knowing of men, and bright criticizer of narrations. Besides, he was such distinct relater and encyclopedic that no one of the people of Qum could attain his rank. He had written about three hundred books.[19]

An-Nejashi referred to Sheikh As-Saduq with the following wording:

Abu Ja’far al-Qummi who resided in Ray was our Sheikh and master jurisprudent. He was the representative of the sect (of Shiism) in Khurasan.[20]

In his Me’aalim ul-Ulemaa, Ibn Shahrashoub said the following about Sheikh As-Saduq:

He was the best of the scholars of Qum. He wrote about three hundred books.[21]

In As-Saraa’ir, Ibn Idris referred to Sheikh As-Saduq with the following wording:

He was trustworthy, highly reverent, well versed in narrations, good criticizer of the reports, well knowing of men, and well memorizer. He was the master of our Sheikh al-Mufid Mohammed bin Mohammed bin An-Nu’man.[22]

Sheikh Hussein bin Abdus-Samad al-Harithi —father of Sheikh al-Bahaa’i— said about Sheikh As-Saduq:

He was highly reverent, high-ranking scholar among the upper class as well as the ordinary people, good narrator of hadith, well knowing of jurisprudence and men, good discerning of the mental and analytical sciences, and good criticizer of reports. He was also the master scholar, jurisprudent, and chief of the Saved Sect (Shia) in Khurasan and Iraq of the non-Arabs; (i.e. Persia).

In the fields of narration and abundance of knowledge, he was so distinct over all those who lived in his time.[23]

The previous models have been few wordings of praise and extolment that were said about Sheikh As-Saduq. To know more about this respectful personality, it is recommendable to refer to the numerous reference books that recorded the biography of him some of which we have just excerpted.

Teachers and Students

Because of the many journeys that Sheikh As-Saduq made to various countries for the purpose of seeking studies, he could read, listen, deliver lectures, and gain the license of many scholars and masters of the countries that he passed by in the various fields of knowledge.

A good look in his numerous books, such as al-Amali, Men La Yahdhuruh ul-Faqih, At-Tawhid, Thawab ul-A’maal and many others, proves that he rested upon many of the Shiite and Sunni master scholars in the field of narrations. He also depended upon such scholars in the fields of hadith regarding a great variety of sciences and fields. The famous names of the master scholars upon whom Sheikh As-Saduq depended in relation of the reports are innumerable.

For avoiding lengthiness, we ask the dear reader to refer to the numerous books of biography so as to have an idea about the teachers of Sheikh As-Saduq.

The students and the narrators on the authority of Sheikh As-Saduq are also too many to be mentioned in this book. Reference books of biography referred to some famous names such as the lofty Sheikh Mohammed bin Mohammed bin An-Nu’man At-Tal’akbari whose nickname is Sheikh al-Mufid, the trustworthy Sheikh Ali bin Ahmed bin al-Abbas (father of Sheikh An-Nejashi), Sheikh Abu al-Hasan Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Ali bin Shathan al-Qummi, Sayyid al-Murtedha Alam ul-Huda, and many others that we could not mention their names in details. To have more information about such names, it is recommendable to refer to the many books that discussed this topic and from which we excerpted this brief biography.

His Works

Sheikh As-Saduq dealt with a great variety of arts and sciences. He wrote many books; more than three hundred ones. Unfortunately, most of these books were lost. We, hereby, refer to some of them:

1.          Ali’tiqadat

2.          al-Amali

3.          Thawab ul-A’maal

4.          al-Khissal

5.          Sifat ush-Shia

6.          Iqab ul-A’maal

7.          Ilal ush-Sharaayi

8.          Uyounu Akhbar ir-Reza

9.          Fadhaa’il ul-Ash’hur ith-Thalatha

10.      Fadhaa’il ush-Shi’a

11.      Kamal ud-Din wa Tamam un-Ni’ma

12.      Mussadaqat ul-Ikhwan[24]

13.      Me’aani al-Akhbar

14.      al-Muqannaa’ fi al-Fiqh

15.      Men La Yahdhuruh al-Faqih[25]

16.      al-Mawaaizh

17.      al-Hidayatu fi al-Fiqh

Furthermore, there are tens of books most of which were lost, as we have previously mentioned. To have more information about such books, it is recommendable to refer to the books that mentioned the biography of Sheikh As-Saduq.

His Death

Sheikh As-Saduq died in 381 A.H. He was more than seventy years old. He was buried in the city of Ray near the tomb of Abdul-Azheem al-Hasani, Allah be pleased with him.

Today, his tomb is one of the famous shrines whom are frequently visited by people who seek blessings there.

In nearly 1238 A. H., Sultan Fat’h Ali Shah the Qajar reconstructed that holy shrine after the spread of the news of the good charismata that had been seen there.

Al-Khawansari, in his Ar-Rawdhat, al-Mamuqani, in his Tanqeeh ul-Maqaal, and other scholars mentioned a number of charismata of Sheikh As-Saduq (after his death) occurred in his blessed shrine. In the year 1238 A.H., a fissure occurred to the shrine due to the heavy rain. When some people entered inside the shrine for chasing the source of that fissure, they could reach the gutter in which Sheikh As-Saduq was buried. They found that his dead body was laid out while the genitals were covered. It was very sound and handsome. On the nails of the body, they could notice the signs of dye, while on the limbs, there were old threads of the torn coffin.

As this event was rumored in the city of Tehran, Sultan Fat’h Ali… ordered to reform that fissure and reconstruct that shrine.


 

* For more information about the biography of Sheikh As-Saduq, refer to al-A’lam; Az-Zarkali, 6:274, A’yaan ush-Shi’a; Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin, 10:24, Amal ul-Aamil; al-Hurr al-Aamili, 2:283, al-Ansaab; As-Sam’aani, 4:544, Tarikhu Baghdad; al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, 3:89, Tuhfat ul-Ahbaab; Sheikh Abbas al-Qummi, 468, Tanqeeh ul-Maqaal; al-Mamuqani, 3:154, Jami ur-Ruwaat; al-Ardabeeli, 2:154, al-Khulaassa; Allama al-Hilli, 147, Ad-Diraya; Sheikh Hussein Abdus-Samad, 70, Ar-Rijal; Ibn Dawoud al-Hilli, 179, Ar-Rijal; Sheikh At-Tousi, 495, Ar-Rijal; An-Nejashi, 389, Rawdhaat ul-Jannaat; al-Khawansari, 6:132, Riyadh ul-Ulemaa; Mirza Abdullah Afandi, 5:119, Rayhanat ul-Adab; al-Muderris At-Tabrizi, 3:434, Siyeru A’lam in-Nubelaa; Ath-Thehbi, 16:303, al-Fihrest; Ibn un-Nadeem, 227, al-Kuna wal-Alqaab; Sheikh Abbas al-Qummi, 560, Lu’lu’at ul-Bahrain; Yousuf al-Bahrani, 372, Me’aalim ul-Ulemaa; Ibn Shahrashoub, 111, Mu’jam ul-Mu’ellifeen; Omar Reza Kahhala, 11:3, Nawabigh ur-Ruwaat; Agha Buzurg At-Tahrani, 287, Hadiyyat ul-Aarifeen; Ismaeel Basha al-Baghdadi, 2:52, and Wassail ush-Shi’a; al-Hurr al-Aamili, 30:478.

[1] Refer to Ar-Rijal; An-Nejashi, 261 H.684

[2] After the Grand Invisibility (Ghaybah) of Imam al-Mahdi, God may hasten his return, four representatives were successively appointed as the means between the Imam and people. The second representative was Mohammed bin Othman al-Omari.

[3] Many are the titles of Imam al-Mahdi; God may hasten his return, such like sahib uz-Zaman —the owner of the time—, al-Qa’im —the executor—, al-Muntazhar —the awaited—, and al-Hujja —the claim of God—.

[4] Refer to Kamal ud-Din wa Tamam un-Ni’ma; 503 H.31.

[5] Refer to al-Ghaybah; 23 H.266.

[6] Refer to al-Kharaij wa al-Jara’ih; 3:1124 H.266.

[7] Refer to A’lam ul-Wara: 422.

[8] Refer to Tabssirat ul-Wali: H.56.

[9] Refer to Muntakhab ul-Anwar il-Mudhee’a: 113.

[10] Refer to Thaqib ul-Manaqib; 270.

[11] Abu Abdillah (As-Saduq’s brother) is al-Hussein bin Ali bin al-Hussein bin Musa bin Babawayh. He was also righteous master and retainer. He dies in 418 A.H. He compiled many books, such as At-Tawhid and Nafy ut-Tashbih.

[12] Refer to Ar-Rijal; an-Nejashi 2661 H.684.

[13] Refer to Ar-Rijal; an-Nejashi 2661 H.684.

[14] Istrabad is a famous town of Tabaristan.

[15] Jurjan is a famous city lying between Tabaristan and Khurasan.

[16] Refer to Kamal ud-Din; 2 (the introduction).

[17] Marwalruth and Sarakhs are two cities in Khurasan.

[18] Hamadan is a big city western Iran. Ilaq is a village in Bukhara. Balkh was a big city. Today, it is a small village in Afghanistan. Samarqand is a famous Uzbek city in east-central Uzbekistan. Faraghana is a city eastern Uzbekistan.

[19] Refer to al-Fihrest; 157, H.695.

[20] Refer to Ar-Rijal; An-Nejashi, 398, H.1049.

[21] Refer to Me’aalim ul-Ulemaa; 111 H.764.

[22] Refer to As-Saraa’ir; 2:529.

[23] Refer to Ad-Diraya; 70.

[24] Some scholars ascribe this book to the father of Sheikh As-Saduq

[25] This book is one of the four master reference books of Shia upon which the scholars depend totally and the jurisprudents extract the rulings.